SWITCHING TO MIDDLE SCHOOL CAN BE HARD ON KIDS, BUT THERE ARE WAYS TO MAKE IT BETTER
By Anya Kemenetz, NPR ED
"I'll be famous one day, but for now I'm stuck in middle school with a bunch of morons." That's harsh language from the downtrodden sixth-grade narrator of Diary of A Wimpy Kid, a blockbuster series of graphic novels.
But it speaks to a broader truth.
A large body of research suggests that students who go to middle school or junior high do worse academically, socially and emotionally, compared to the young teenagers who get to be the oldest students at schools with grades K-8.
A new paper in the Journal of Early Adolescence reinforces this message. The study found that starting a new school in either sixth or seventh grade hurts students' perceptions of their own reading ability and motivation to work hard in English language arts.
It tracks nearly 6,000 students from kindergarten through eighth grade. The authors compared the performance of students who attended a K-8 school to those who left for a middle school in sixth grade or a junior high in seventh grade. They focused on outcomes by eighth grade to rule out the negative impact that may have come merely from making the transition to a new school itself.
SOFTENING THE BLOW
The negative effects were exaggerated for students from higher-income households. That surprised Elise Cappella, a lead author on the study and associate professor of applied psychology at New York University. Although children from lower-income households did worse in school overall, switching to middle school didn't affect them as severely as the most privileged kids.
Most students this age attend a middle or junior high school. So, is this evidence we need to do away with them? "I don't think middle and junior high schools are the problem or the solution," says Cappella. "Instead, we need to strengthen all schools that serve early adolescents, regardless of whether they are K-8, middle schools or junior high schools."
Educators should be aware of the brain science of the early teen years, says Cappella.
"Early adolescence is a time of major growth," she says. "Brain development occurs at a rapid pace. Young people are experiencing physiological changes [puberty], social changes [peer group influence], and personal changes [identity development]." Young people this age are also going through a time of development where they are forming an identity and opinions of their own, apart from family or cultural norms which can be challenging to the adults around them.
While schools are uniquely situated to provide support during this phase, after school or community organizations often have more personalized relationships with kids and can offer a strong support.
This past summer, FYI developed a unique curriculum for its elementary school students who were transitioning into 6th grade, and the middle school 8th graders moving into high school.
Using specific youth oriented books on the topic and activities geared toward helping students establish a healthy sense of self identity, FYI youth practitioners spent considerable time during the summer program working to prepare the students who were facing the biggest transitions. FYI's Director of Middle School Programs, Wendy Peña, says it's very important to do this kind of identity work with middle school kids. According to Peña, identity work "helps to ease the transition, not just to middle school but for some, the transition to a new language and culture."
Portions of this article were originally published online at NPR ED.